While we are caring for patients, many of the time we will find that a particular diet is prescribed for our patient. For eg. Liquid Diet, Bland diet, low protein diet etc. Have you got confused about how to advise your patient regarding his/her therapeutic diet contents? This article will help you sort it out…..
Therapeutic Diet Management for Nurses
- Liquid Diet
– For shorter periods of time
– After surgery/heart attack
– For patients with acute infections or digestive problems
– To replace fluid lost by vomiting or diarrhoea
– Before X – rays of digestive tracts
Eg. of Clear liquid diet – Water, apple or grape juice, fat free broths, plain gelatin, popsicles, gingerale, tea or coffee
Eg of Full liquid diet – includes clear liquid diet plus strained soups/cereals, fruits and vegetable juices, yogurt, hot cocoa, custard, ice cream, pudding, sherbet, eggnog etc.
2. Soft Diet
– More or less similar to regular diet but includes foods that require little chewing and easy to digest.
– Persons on soft diet should avoid eating meat with tough connective tissue, coarse cereals, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw fruits and veggies, nuts, coconuts etc.
3. Low residue diet
– Used for patients with digestive and rectal diseases such as colitis and diarrhea
– This diet restricts foods high in bulk fiber such as raw fruits, veggies, whole grains, cereals, nuts, seeds, beans, peas, coconut and fried foods.
4. Diabetic Diet
– Foods are grouped according to type, nutrients and calories. Varies from person to person.
Different types of Calorie Diet
5. Low Calorie Diet
– For obese/overweight patients
– Patients need to avoid/limit foods such as butter, cream, whole milk, cream soups, gravies, sweet soft drinks, alcohol, salad dressings, fatty meats, candy, rich desserts etc.
6. High Calorie Diet
– For patients who are under weight, those who have anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism or cancer
– Includes more protiens and carbohydrates
– Foods to be avoided includes green salads, watermelon and fibrous fruits as well as fat rich foods such as fried ones, rich pastries, cheese cakes etc.
– Fat rich foods digest slowly and spoil apetite
7. Low Cholesterol Diet
– Cholestrol restriction
– For patients with atherosclerosis, heart diseases etc.
– Food restrictions includes food high in saturated fats such as beef, liver, pork, lamb, eggyolk, cream, cheese, shellfish, whole milk, coconut and palm oil products.
8. Fat Restricted or Low Fat Diet
– For patients with gall bladder and liver diseases, obesity and some heart diseases
– Foods that should be avoided includes cream, whole milk, cheese, fats, fatty meats, rich desserts, chocolate, fried foods, salad dressings, nuts and coconut.
9. Sodium Restricted Diet
– For patients with Cardiovascular diseases like Hypertension, Congestive heart failure, kidney disease, edema etc.
– Avoidance or limitation of salt in food, smoked meats or fish, processed foods, pickles, olives and processed cheeses.
10. High Protein Diet
– For children and adolescents (for additional growth), for pregnant or lactating women, before/after surgery, for burn patients, fever or infections.
– Protien rich foods such as meat, fish, milk, cheese or eggs are added to regular diet.
11. Low Protein Diet
– For certain Kidney diseases as well as in some allergic conditions.
– Regular diet with limited or decreased protein rich foods.
12. Bland Diet
– Consists of easily digested foods that do not irritate digestive tract.
– Used for ulcer as well as other digestive disease patients
– Avoidance of coarse foods, fried foods, highly seasoned foods, pastries, raw fruits, veggies, alcohol, carbonated beverages, nuts, coffee, tea, smoked and salted meats and fish.
13. Diet for Maltnutrition
– High energy and high protein
– Energy and nutrient dense foods.
– Fortified foods
– Use of supplements
– Encourage foods that patient likes to eat
So now you have some idea of how to help your patients to find out foods that they can consume according to therapeutic diet prescribed.
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